Originally called Orman Dam, the Belle Fourche Dam was built in stages between 1903 and 1911. The dam was the first-ever project authorized by the 1902 Reclamation Act, which also established the Federal Bureau of Reclamation. A credits a handful of local politicians and farmers for the project, but a more popular version of events suggests that a strong bond of friendship between Black Hills entrepreneur Seth Bullock and then President Theodore Roosevelt actually led to the project's initiation.
The dam was built to allow irrigation of otherwise nearly arid land in Butte and Mead counties north of the Black Hills. Water stored in the reservoir still provides water to the area via an extensive system of canals and other waterways.
This video shows several photographs from the early construction phase of the dam. Note that workers used horse power and steam equipment to build the earthen dam in six-inch layers, one after another.
Belle Fourche Dam is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and claims a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark designation.